Finding a Place to Lay Your Head in Spain

There’s nothing like a vacation to relax your soul and renew your outlook on life. Particularly if you’re visiting a foreign country, like Spain, where there are many historical and cultural sights and gorgeous beaches to lounge on.

As exciting as the actual vacation can be, the time leading up to it is often hectic and confusing as you make your travel plans. One of the most difficult tasks in planning a vacation in Spain, particularly if you don’t speak the language, is finding hotel accommodations that suit your needs and your budget.

Fortunately, Spain has a great number of great places to lay your head, and you can spend as much or as little as you like per night. Of course, what you spend also depends on what you must have to spend your vacation comfortably and where you plan to stay. If you plan to stay in one of the larger cities, like Barcelona, you can expect to pay a higher price for your hotel room than if you stay in one of the smaller cities.

One trick to getting the lowest possible rates for your accommodations in Spain is to actually not make reservations until you get to Spain. Try to arrive at your actual destination as early in the day as possible, and then take a bit of time to check out options other than hotels, such as hostels or hostales, where you can often get a nice, comfortable room at very little cost.

In Spain, there are a few different options for holiday accommodations, such as:

Hotels: Hotels in Spain are pretty much the same as they are in other countries. Most have private bathrooms, safety features, and air conditioning. They generally accept payment by credit card and can be booked ahead of time from your home or travel agency. As an added benefit, you’re very likely to find English-speaking staff to assist you.

Hostels or Hostales: Hostels are often known as youth hostels. However, they are also open to families. These are less expensive than hotels, though they may not have some of the luxuries. Many of them have very nice rooms and often have staff members who speak English. Some have private bathroom you may have to supply your own towels and washcloths, though.

Pensiones: These are basically rooms for rent. They’re very basic and may not be as nice as the accommodations of a hostel or hotel. The rooms are sometimes quite small, don’t have air conditioning, and guests usually have to share a bathroom. Most don’t accept credit card payments and may not have English-speaking staff.

Holiday Apartments: There are plenty of apartments available to travellers in Spain. These are, as they sound, full apartments including bedrooms, sitting areas, kitchens, and bathrooms. They’re an excellent option for long vacations or for families who prefer to keep their children all under one roof rather than in several separate hotel rooms.

When planning a trip to Spain, it’s best to reserve hotels ahead of time since it can be difficult to find accommodations during some months of the year. This is especially true if you’re travelling to places such as Barcelona or Madrid where it can be difficult to get a hotel room in the summer even well in advance.

If you plan to stay in a hostel, you may wish to wait until you get there to choose your accommodations. Because the quality of hostels and the amenities they offer varies widely, it’s best if you check out the room before you reserve it. This does, of course, run some risk of not finding a place at all or having to settle for something less luxurious than you might otherwise stay in.

In the end, where you choose to stay in Spain really depends on what you’d like to spend and what kind of luxuries you’re used to having and it may just depend on how adventurous you are, too!

Travel in Austria: Free Travel Guide of Vienna by Flashbooking for Backpakers

Vienna, Austria’s capital city, has 1,533,000 inhabitants and stands on the right bank of the Danube, at the foot of the Wienervald hills. Originally referred to as Vindobona, the city had already gained noteable importance by the period of the Roman Empire. From the 13th century to the end of the First World War, the country was under the rule of the Asburg family.

The guides are full of essential hints on where to go, things to see, Vienna’s Museums, shopping mall and flea markets, quality places reasonably priced where to eat or sip a famous Pilsner, clubs and discos, budget hostels and cheap hotel deals to book, emergency numbers and more.

Nearly all the city’s sights and major attractions are located within a small area and are easily reached on foot.Vienna is divided into districts (bezirke). District number 1(Inneren Stadt) is the centre of the city and contains the largest number of monuments, all of which are indicated with a red and white sign. The Ringstrasse is the visitor’s first indication of Imperial Vienna.

Flashbooking is a growing cheap hostel Vienna and hotels directory specializing in budget accommodation for independent travellers, students, adventurous backpackers, international volunteers, families and all the ones that travel on a budget.

Flashbooking accommodation database is easily available online and comes completed with all relevant information about youth hostel and hotel location and map, description, services, hostel contacts, customer ratings, six pictures and updated prices inclusive of taxes and services together with instant real availability.

With the monthly newsletter, Flashbooking puts at travellers’ and partner hostels’ free disposal some useful information tools as pocket travel guides of the top world cities: the Amsterdam City guide, the London City guide, the Barcelona City guide, the Paris City guide, the Rome City guide, the Florence City guide, and the freshly issued Vienna City guide!

In general, these guides have been written for giving the essential information about the most visited cities in the world and in particular for any traveller or first-time visitor. For a short visit, a week-end, a city break, these free pocket guides are useful printable and downloadable tools available online.

Having the reservation final price is also convenient as it does give the transparency our users pretend while booking. Having the final total amount of your booking means you do not have to worry about other extra surprises! Flashbooking cheap lodging solutions are all available for online bookings and divided by Countries.

Thawte is a system which encrypts all the processed data and guarantees that this will not be read, used or modified by other parties. Confirmed online bookings mean that your holiday is just a click away, that you can get all the information needed to book online, that you can save time and money!

Recently added a new free customer service online at travellers disposal to suggest the perfect accommodation for their trip and voyages. The Skype account ‘Flashbooking Customercare’ gives more assistance also in the booking process for all our travellers and backpackers needs.

Flashbooking chose to provide backpackers, students and families with a list of budget selected and independent accommodations worldwide, mostly run by locals, in order to promote an alternative tourism respectful of cultures and different societies.

Our travellers are also our good partners as they help us either giving their ratings of some accommodations, lodgings, cheap hotels Vienna, youth hostels and cheap hotels in Vienna where they personally stayed, either enlarging the hostel offer by reporting some new contacts.

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Travel in Italy: Great Free Travel Guide of Venice by Flashbooking Cheap Booking On-line

Flashbooking is becoming a recognized source of information and services for who loves creating a trip by him/herself and book bed nights securely online.

In fact, thanks to a secure server certified SSL provided by Thawte (the global certificate authority) Flashbooking is able to guarantee instantly confirmed and secure online bookings for cheap hostel Venice. Thawte is a system which encrypts all the processed data and guarantees that this will not be read, used or modified by other parties.

Venice is situated in the Veneta Lagoon, on an archipelago of 120 islands, separated by 160 canals,which in their turn are spanned by 400 bridges.The city, connected to the mainland by both a rail and road bridge, is divided into six districts (sestieri): San Marco,Dorsoduro, Cannaregio, Castello, Santa Croce and San Polo. These zones are divided up by a dense network of canals (rii) and an intricate system of narrow and windy streets (calli and Salizade) which open out onto the canals and campielli (small Venetian squares). The historic centre borders the Grand Canal, which is crossed by the Academy bridge, the Ponte di Rialto and the Ponte degli Scalzi.

A Skype account has been recently added in order to give more assistance to our travellers and backpackers needs. Flashbooking accommodation database is easily available online and comes completed with all relevant information about hostel location, description, contacts, prices, instant real availability, customer ratings, facilities and pictures. In particularFlashbooking provides a large selection of cheap or low cost accommodation offers in Florence where there are plenty of low cost solutions for backpackers in budget youth hostels, Bed and Breakfast, family run guesthouses, cheap hotel deals.

Recently, Flashbooking staff and management have decided to put at travellers’ and partner hostels’ free disposal some useful tools as some pocket travel guides, written for giving the essential information about the most visited cities in the world. Especially created for a quick visit, a week end, a city break, these free pocket guides are printable and downloadable online. The staff efforts concentrate on making them simple to read and with a nice format and full of essential hints on where to go, things to see, shopping and markets, quality places reasonably priced where to eat or hang out in the nights, budget hostels, cheap hotel deals and bed and breakfast Venice to book, emergency numbers and more.

Venice is relatively small and the majority of the city is easily reached on foot. Using a street guide makes it impossible to get lost in the maze of streets. All the buildings are numbered, based upon the district to which they belong and not to the street. Each house is indicated initially with the name of the district followed by the number.There is a wide choice for those who wish to take a boat trip. tickets are available from all the boat stops and in some bars, shops, and tobacconists who show the ACTV sign.

See Flashbooking database of selected accommodations worldwide and help us enlarging the hostel offer by reporting the contacts of some accommodations, lodgings, BandB, youth hostels and budget small hotels where you personally stayed. In fact, Flashbooking policy tends to privilege small and family-run hotels in order to promote an alternative tourism respectful of cultures and different societies.

If you also have a personal website or a travel blog, or even manage a youth hostel or a hotel accommodation, and are interested in the travel city guides, you can collect all of them and put at your visitors’ disposal.

Other city pocket guides of top European cities are: the London guide, the Rome guide, the Amsterdam guide, the Paris guide, the Prague guide, the Barcelona guide and more coming on soon!

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Travel in Egypt: Free Pocket Guide of Cairo City by Flashbooking Budget Reservation On-line

The guides are full of essential hints on where to go, things to see, Cairo’s Museums, shopping mall and flea markets, quality places reasonably priced where to eat or sip a famous Pilsner, clubs and discos, budget hostels and cheap hotel deals to book, emergency numbers and more.

Cairo, which means “The Vanquisher” or “The Triumphant”, is the capital city of Egypt. While Al-Qahirah is the official name of the city, in Egyptian Arabic it is typically called simply by the name of the country, Masr. It has a metropolitan area population of officially about 16.1 million people.

Cairo, the main destination for European and Asian travellers, has, during the last century, become one of the biggest and most cosmopolitan cities in the world.

Flashbooking is a growing cheap hostel Cairo and hotels directory specializing in budget accommodation for independent travellers, students, adventurous backpackers, international volunteers, families and all the ones that travel on a budget.

Cairo is the twenty-first most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is also the most populous metropolitan area and the most populous city in Africa.

Flashbooking accommodation database is easily available online and comes completed with all relevant information about youth hostel and cheap hotel Cairo location and map, description, services, hostel contacts, customer ratings, six pictures and updated prices inclusive of taxes and services together with instant real availability.

With the monthly newsletter, Flashbooking puts at travellers’ and partner hostels’ free disposal some useful information tools as pocket travel guides of the top world cities: the Amsterdam City guide, the London City guide, the Barcelona City guide, the Paris City guide, the Rome City guide, the Florence City guide, and the freshly issued Cairo City guide!

In general, these guides have been written for giving the essential information about the most visited cities in the world and in particular for any traveller or first-time visitor. For a short visit, a week-end, a city break, these free pocket guides are useful printable and downloadable tools available online.

In the Cairo guide students, families and backpackers can get a large selection of cheap or low cost accommodation with plenty of low cost solutions in budget youth hostels, Bed and Breakfast Cairo, guesthouses, cheap hotel deals.

Our travellers are also our good partners as they help us either giving their ratings of some accommodations, lodgings, BandB, youth hostels and budget small hotels where they personally stayed, either enlarging the hostel offer by reporting some new contacts.

Flashbooking policy tends to privilege small and family-run hotels in order to promote an alternative tourism respectful of cultures and different societies.

Facts, tips and advice on Barcelona – Part 1

The people; known for being hard working and polite but a fierce rivalry exists between Barcelona and Madrid.

The Language; For over 1000 years, Catalan, a combination of Spanish, Latin and medievil French, has been spoken in Catalunya.

The Religion; Roman catholicism is the most dominant faith in Spain.

The Food; influnced from all over the world, particuarly mediterainian and french cuisine.

Etiquette; Topless sunbathing is accepted on the beaches but more modesty is appropriate inland.

What to pack; If you plan to take advantage of Barcelona’s nightlife, high fashion is essential! Otherwise dressing casual is fine in the day with smart wear for the evenings.

Emergency numbers;

Polocia Nacional (national police) – 091

Policia Municipail – 092

Emergency medical service – 061

Enjoying A Trip To Low price range Bangkok Hotels Thailand

There can be different sizes and shapes of accommodation ad completely different resorts based mostly of their city. There will b something for everybody’s taste. Your go to will probably be a trip to recollect even if you happen to only there for a holiday, exploring or business.

There are dinner cruises on the Chao Phraya River or rooftop bars on one in every of a whole lot of high-rise skyscrapers. Touring in and across the city and countryside in direction of different parts of Thailand is quite effortless. There are ample taxis and traditional tuk-tuk available. One of many quicker technique of transport is the Sky practice and the underground train.

No need to worry getting misplaced or battling with the language barrier, as there is space guides who help guests to make their approach in and around Bangkok. First time guests find the crowded streets fairly overwhelming.

Thailand provides amazing sightseeing opportunities. Gleaming temples such as the Grand Palace, the Siamese Ruins and the Ruins of Ayutthaya are only a few. There’s a floating market and bike trails through the attractive villages. The alternatives of resorts are simply as vast as the locations to see. There are 5 star resorts for the rich and leisure looking for visitors and there are price range lodging catering for business and family oriented customers.

Thailand will supply a variety of great places to see or visit. A kind of places can be the great grand palace. There are also a number of other temples to see. To study concerning the ruins of Ayutthaya and Siamese you might join the river cruise. Different locations to go to could be the floating market. Thailand also offers nice bike trails to explore the villages. Budgeted accommodation could be found in Thailand. Be sure to go to Thailand.

How to incorporate exercise on your next vacation

Vacation does not need to be a time of guilty pleasures. The key to truly enjoying your next vacation lies in activity. Follow these simple rules and you won’t come home hiding your summer tan:

1) Walk

Walking is by far the no-brainer. Whether you’re relaxing in Hawaii, or sightseeing in Paris, you can and must walk. As any New Yorker will tell you, city living demands some leg work. Paris, Rome, Bavaria, Barcelona, they’ve all seen the soles of my shoes. The advantage on vacation? You don’t know the city. You might walk up and down those metro stairs five times before you’ve figured out which train to catch. If a tropical island is more your vacation cup-of-tea, look around you! No excuses. A beautiful blue beach is calling you to disappear into the sunset. Stairs or sand, your butt will love you.

2) Dive In

Taken literally or figuratively, this second rule is the most rewarding for the active vacationer. There is the obvious physical benefits of spending the day in the pool, or taking a surfing class on Hamoa beach, yet these are mere avenues to an exciting world of holiday exercise. The truly active vacationer never lets the moment pass. Never say, tomorrow’, or I’m too tired.’ Immerse yourself in this new culture. Take the detours. Live like the locals. Venture through exotic market places, climb all the Spanish steps don’t snap a shot from the caf, join in the tomato fight in Bunol don’t watch it from the hotel couch.

3) Have Fun

Who ever said the volleyball nets, or the bicycles, are for kids? Vacation is about letting go, relaxing. Having fun is a far greater stress reliever than lying by the pool as you flit away thoughts of: “will that kid stop screaming,” “sunglasses tan – no!”, or “boy I hope that man with the free martini’s doesn’t come my way”. Sweat the stress away. Simply ask yourself, “would I find this fun as a kid?” If not, you’re probably not getting the exercise you need. Next time your boyfriend says let’s go for a swim, race him there!

4) Sweat the Little Things

As much as you really like the thought of not having to make your own bed, the truth is; you’re storing energy you not need. Don’t give the maid your chance to burn some extra calories. She’s not the one eating chocolate souffl for dessert! If this is a luxury you can not bear to relinquish, then compromise. Enjoy your first two days of breakfast in bed; spend the rest taking the walk over to the buffet, or out to the local market. Don’t mistake relaxing for laziness.

Nueva Hipótesis De Construcción De La Pirámide De Keops

HIPÓTESIS DE CONSTRUCCIÓN DE LAS PIRÁMIDES

DEL VALLE DE GIZEH (Giza).

- RESUMEN -

Autor : Lic. Carlos E. Rodríguez Varona

Coautor : Téc. Dámaso René Rodríguez Vives

Derechos reservados bajo licencia No. 90–2003 del CENDA (Centro Nacional de Derecho de Autor). La Habana, Cuba.

INTRODUCCIÓN

La siguiente hipótesis pretende demostrar la probable técnica utilizada para la construcción, específicamente la elevación y ubicación a determinada altura, de los elementos constructivos que componen las pirámides egipcias del valle de Gizeh, en específico la pirámide de Keops. Se expone una teoría que utiliza dos tipos de rampas: las de carácter estático, situadas en el interior del cuerpo de la pirámide, construidas con el cuerpo de ésta; y otras más pequeñas de carácter dinámico, ubicadas sobre los escalones de los niveles, de estructura flexible y variable, fácil de trasladar y maniobrar respecto a las anteriores. Presentando ambas una ángulo de inclinación casi nulo en la pendiente.

Las piezas están colocadas en forma de aparejo al estilo soga de sillería, por lo que se encuentran sujetas – o mordidas – por la masa que se encuentra encima distribuida firme y uniformemente de forma permanente. En las referencias bibliográficas aparecen los fundamentos generales de las teorías anteriores.

Esta hipótesis presenta 4 rasgos que constituyen conceptos totalmente novedosos respecto a las hipótesis anteriores:

• Las pequeñas dimensiones que poseen respecto a las pirámides y el ángulo de inclinación casi nulo que poseen respecto al plano horizontal, de 3.9 grados.

• El espacio donde se desarrolla esta hipótesis lo constituyen los escalones y bordes que poseen los niveles de la pirámide.

• El primer tipo de rampas emplea rampas, plataformas y soportes, que van colocados sobre los escalones que conforman los niveles; cantidad que varia según la altura y el tipo de elemento a subir.

• El segundo tipo utiliza pequeñas secciones de los bordes de los niveles que aumentan en longitud y profundidad dentro del nivel según avanza la construcción de la rampa, acorde con las dimensiones que se requiere tenga la misma.

El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en enunciar la probable técnica utilizada para construir la pirámide mediante el uso de rampas para elevar las piezas, sin abarcar la totalidad del proceso constructivo de la misma; teniendo presente que éste constituye el aspecto fundamental para llevar a cabo la construcción: sin una técnica para transportar las piezas no es posible hacer nada.

PRIMER TIPO DE RAMPA

La construcción del modelo se realiza mediante el siguiente procedimiento: tomando dimensiones aproximadas a las de los bloques que componen la pirámide, utilizando formas geométricas básicas, un breve razonamiento físico – matemático y medidas de longitud comunes en aquella época; se escoge un ángulo adecuado para la pendiente que posibilite anular casi completamente la acción de la fuerza de gravedad; confeccionándose una rampa que satisfaga las dos condiciones fundamentales:

• Transformar el trabajo de elevar los bloques en vencer la fuerza de rozamiento al arrastrarlos y no en vencer la acción de la fuerza de gravedad sobre ellos.

• Posibilidad de trasladar los bloques de manera cómoda, segura y rápida, haciendo posible realizar complejas maniobras con un mínimo de riesgo; aún cuando esto implique recorrer mayores distancias y trasladar un mayor número de piezas que componen las rampas debido a la necesidad de aumentar el volumen y las dimensiones de la misma.

Estas dos condiciones, de obligatorio cumplimiento para los dos tipos de rampas, constituyen la premisa teórica que sustenta esta hipótesis.

Para el caso específico del modelo de rampa patrón confeccionado para determinar el ángulo de la pendiente, las medidas utilizadas fueron – empleando el codo bíblico como longitud:

• Altura inicial: 0.45 metros (1 codo),

• Altura final: 2.70 metros (6 codos, incluyendo la altura inicial),

• Longitud de la rampa: 33.75 metros (75 codos),

• Ancho (opcional): 1.8 metros (4 codos) – (el ancho varia según la altura en le caso del segundo tipo de rampas)

Mediante el Teorema del Triángulo rectángulo de Pitágoras, se determina el ángulo de inclinación que tendrá la pendiente, lográndose el resultado buscado. De forma aleatoria: no se utiliza algún procedimiento específico para calcularlo. Este procedimiento se refleja en los anexos. Las medidas se escogen según la necesidad de elevar los objetos hasta determinada altura y posición. Puede observarse cómo diseñar rampas de distintas longitudes conforme a lo anterior en los anexos. Las dimensiones y el ángulo de inclinación que poseen las rampas son mayores de lo que realmente pudieran haber sido. Esto es válido también para el segundo tipo de rampa. Esto evita discutir las cuestiones relacionadas con las medidas reales.

El primer tipo presenta un conjunto estructural complementario conformado por dos plataformas horizontales: la primera destinada para ubicar los bloques, como un lugar intermedio entre la rampa y el nivel al lado de la misma para colocarlos posteriormente sobre dicho nivel o elevarlos por otra rampa paralelamente ubicada; y la segunda como soporte para sostener las rampas y plataformas que sobresalgan de los escalones. Es característica fundamental el casi nulo ángulo de inclinación: 3.9 grados de pendiente respecto al plano horizontal. Esto equivale a trabajar sobre superficies casi totalmente horizontales. El mismo se obtiene a partir de dimensiones escogidas aleatoriamente.

Se obtiene un método eficaz para elevar objetos de cualesquiera dimensiones de un nivel a otro, empleando un sistema de rampas capaz de variar sus dimensiones rápidamente utilizando más de un nivel como soporte para ajustarse a las necesidades existentes. Esto permite combinar varios conjuntos con el objetivo de utilizarlos de forma alterna para elevar los elementos en secciones complicadas. Esto aparece ejemplificado en las figuras. Esta cualidad cobra gran validez en el caso de la construcción de las cámaras y habitaciones interiores y los niveles más altos de la pirámide.

Este primer tipo sería fundamental en la construcción de la parte más alta – el llamado PIRAMIDON – utilizándose para esto varias caras, para realizar el acabado final de las caras, y para corregir desperfectos o rematar detalles durante el proceso constructivo; en la transportación de las joyas, símbolos y demás piezas funerarias; y en el sellaje de las cámaras y rellenado del camino. El proceso de rellenado de los escalones en la parte más alta, donde supuestamente no caben por la longitud tan reducida que poseen las aristas de los niveles respecto a la longitud que poseen las rampas, se realizaría de forma vertical. O sea: se rellenarán los espacios de los escalones inferiores donde se encuentra la rampa, de forma que las secciones rellenadas correspondan con el plano vertical de la misma.

La utilización de este primer tipo es esencial a la hora de concebir la pirámide debido a la cualidad que la caracteriza: es una estructura fácil de mover, aunque resulte considerable el número de piezas que la componen. Esto posibilita desmontarla completamente en cualquier momento de la construcción para colocarla en otro lugar. Deja de ser un objeto estático, posibilitando diseños de gran complejidad y dadas sus amplias posibilidades para variar sus dimensiones, se adapta fácilmente al lugar, posición y maniobra que se requiera durante el proceso constructivo.

SEGUNDO TIPO DE RAMPA

Consiste en aplicar el tipo anterior utilizando una nueva variante: usando rampas iguales pero de dimensiones mayores, combinadas con el cuerpo de la pirámide. Estas rampas serían las utilizadas a gran escala para realizar la mayor parte del trabajo, empleada para transportar la mayor cantidad de bloques y elementos constructivos. La altura está expresada por la cantidad de niveles que ocupan, la cual obedecerá a la exigencia de avanzar más rápidamente en el trabajo.

La longitud debe ajustarse para conservar el ángulo de la pendiente de 3.9 grados. El objetivo consiste en vencer la fuerza de rozamiento y no la fuerza de gravedad. Constituyen grandes y largas rampas construidas utilizando secciones tomadas de los bordes de los niveles, cercanas a los escalones de la pirámide, pero ubicadas sobre los niveles. Presentan grandes longitudes, cercanas a los 80 metros como se muestra en la tabla de medidas. Y la altura inicial es análoga a las del primer tipo: un codo de altura y una superficie superior conformada por bloques casi cúbicos con una pendiente de inclinación de 3.9 grados.

Las secciones de los bordes de los niveles –o de las esquinas, según el caso– literalmente son absorbidas por las rampas a medida que éstos últimos se van construyendo, utilizando como plataforma para soportar la rampa los niveles inferiores. Por lo que la pirámide se convierte en la vía para subir las piezas, sin necesidad de escalones ni plataformas.

Se toman los bloques de determinadas secciones de los bordes de los niveles para construir la base sobre la cual se construirá la rampa. La cantidad tomada disminuye horizontalmente en cada nivel a medida que se construye, pues la longitud de la rampa disminuye a medida que aumenta la altura: La dirección de las rampas dependerá de la trayectoria inicial tomada.

El volumen que ocupan las rampas propiamente es el conformado por la parte de la pendiente únicamente, o sea, el volumen correspondiente a la sección limitada entre la pendiente y el plano horizontal corresponde a la rampa propiamente dicha. El resto son los bloques de los niveles. El ancho de la rampa equivale al de varios bloques o escalones, para permitir transportar varios elementos a la vez u otros de mayores proporciones. La rampa se construye adentrándose hacia el interior de la misma a medida que se avanza en la construcción, mediante un trayecto que las interconecta, manteniendo la pendiente de 3,9 grados. Semejando una enorme escalera lateral con forma de zig-zag dentro de la pirámide. Esto permite trasladar cualquiera de las piezas que componen la pirámide, sin importar las dimensiones y/o la masa que posean, hasta cierta altura.

Si existe necesidad de variar el sentido de dirección porque se interpone algún obstáculo: un pasaje, una cámara, un fallo o accidente, una esquina, u otro detalle; se determina si es necesario cambiar el sentido, las dimensiones, continuar sobre una cara u otras, reemplazarlas por las del primer tipo, etc., brindando un proceso bastante dinámico. Pero teniendo en cuenta que una vez construidas no es posible volver hacia atrás pues los bloques que componen el cuerpo de las rampas no se pueden quitar ya que forma parte de lo que ha sido construido.

El segundo tipo de rampa resulta de fusionar las del primer tipo repetidas varias veces una al lado de la otra en varios niveles; aprovechando como plataformas de soporte para los elementos constructivos y para las anteriores rampas, los bloques que se encuentran al final de las rampas montadas sucesivamente y los que quedan por debajo de las secciones tomadas en los bordes de los niveles, respectivamente. Se utilizará para construir la mayor parte de la pirámide. Cuando se llegue a una altura donde no exista espacio para instalarlas se disminuyen sus dimensiones. Y cuando no se pueda seguir reduciendo las dimensiones, se sustituyen por las del primer tipo. Esto incluye además la posibilidad de combinar, temporalmente o no, los dos tipos de rampas para superar obstáculos o aplicar técnicas constructivas determinadas.

Resulta ventajoso destinar una sección o área fija de la cara para trabajar con las rampas. Esto facilita el diseño y la planificación del trabajo, pues las secciones empleadas son más fáciles de controlar, reservando la utilización de las restantes secciones para posibles problemas o variaciones del diseño.

Todo esto posibilita confeccionar una maqueta de la pirámide para determinar cómo va a ser construida, dónde van colocadas las rampas y cómo serán utilizadas.

Planificando acertadamente, se posee un margen de errores que facilita superar fallos o modificaciones necesarias, permitiendo ejecutar acciones acordes con las necesidades y posibilidades existentes.

Y al llegar a la parte más alta de la pirámide – que incluye el PIRAMIDON – se utiliza el primer tipo de rampas y finalmente se rellenan los espacios utilizados por las rampas del segundo tipo. Esta última operación se lleva a cabo de forma descendente empleando el primer tipo: el primer tipo de rampas se utiliza de forma permanente en la etapa final.

Este trabajo no pretende exponer un ejemplo concreto que muestre el procedimiento exacto para construir la pirámide, donde se especifique la utilización de los dos tipos de rampas, pues los dos modelos de rampas aquí expuestos pueden ser utilizados empleando disímiles variantes técnicas en cualquier construcción donde se empleen rampas. Se incluyen los anexos relacionados al final con este fin: utilizarlos como guía para elaborar un determinado y exacto procedimiento constructivo. El objetivo de esta hipótesis consiste solamente en transmitir la técnica; no el procedimiento.

CONCLUSIONES

Esta técnica presenta varias ventajas y aportes respecto a las existentes anteriormente:

Posee un fundamento preciso y razonable respecto a las anteriores hipótesis existentes. Emplea las rampas de manera eficiente, utilizando medidas conocidas y una técnica concreta, sin presentar graves inconvenientes como son: constituir un riesgo para la seguridad personal de los constructores, ser demasiado costosa; no establecer de forma clara, sencilla y adecuada a las condiciones de aquellos tiempos, un procedimiento técnico fiable que garantice el proceso constructivo. A su vez, permite disuadir de pensar en recurrir a métodos o procedimientos tales como los de carácter sobrenatural o extraterrestre.

Conforma un modelo seguro y fiable que sirve como herramienta fundamental en el diseño y construcción de la pirámide, posibilitando planificar de forma exacta la misma, calcular el tiempo de construcción, la cantidad de recursos, personal y elementos técnicos necesarios.

Esta hipótesis acarrea implícitamente la posibilidad que el faraón contara con una técnica segura que le permitiera tomar la decisión de construir la pirámide.

Esta hipótesis, de validarse desde el punto de vista histórico, replantea el enigma de la construcción de la pirámide orientando la incógnita del enfoque investigativo dirigida a descubrir cómo fue calculada y diseñada la pirámide y cómo fueron elaboradas, colocadas y construidas todas sus piezas y secciones.

Este trabajo no descarta la posibilidad del uso de otras técnicas expresadas con anterioridad que pudieran servir como complementarias, pues pudieran ser aplicadas al realizar maniobras singulares o transportar elementos específicos como pudieran ser enormes piezas. Además, está dirigido a facilitar un estudio y comprensión de la arquitectura del antiguo Egipto. Es, en parte, un reconocimiento al desarrollo socio – cultural alcanzado por los antiguos egipcios. Es el motor impulsor de este trabajo fundamentar hasta donde sea posible, una hipótesis de carácter lo más razonable y cercano posible a las condiciones técnicas y socio – culturales que existieron en aquel entonces.

De esta forma quedan planteadas las rampas de esta hipótesis; las cuales a primera vista pueden resultar ineficaces debido a lo pequeñas que parecen con respecto a las dimensiones de la pirámide; pero que poco a poco, utilizándolas de forma sistemática, proporcionan una solución bastante consistente y satisfactoria respecto al dilema de la técnica utilizada para elevar las piezas, posibilitando utilizar estas rampas en la construcción de una pirámide con la complejidad y el tamaño que se desee, como se verá más adelante. Con una adecuada planificación y diseño, se pueden utilizar de forma efectiva colocándolas sistemáticamente paralelas a y sobre los escalones, de forma continua para conformar una trayectoria a través de una o varias de las caras – según el diseño del arquitecto – por donde se puede transportar los elementos.

REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS

I. Aldred, Cyril, Aparición de los reyes – dioses. Primer florecimiento del antiguo Egipto. / Piggott, Stuart, El despertar de la civilización. Los enigmas de las antiguas culturas revelados, Ed. Labour, S.A. Barcelona, España, 1963.

II. Enciclopedia digital ENCARTA, Edición año 2000. Microsoft Corporation.

III. Moreux, T. (Abate), La ciencia misteriosa de los faraones, Ed. Sabian, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1956.

IV. Pijoán, José, El arte egipcio hasta la conquista romana / Summa Artis: Historia general del arte, Ed. Espasa – Calpe, S.A. Vol. III. Segunda edición, Madrid, Epaña, 1945.

V. Sitio web: Touregypt: http://www.touregypt.net/antiq.

VI. Sitio web: Biblioteca del Congreso de los Estados unidos: mailto: lcweb.loc.gov.

VII. Sitio web: Biblioteca Universidad Zaragoza: http://wzar.unizar.es

VIII. Stadelmann, Rainer, Las pirámides, colosales obras de ingeniería, Rev. “El correo de la UNESCO”, número El Egipto de los faraones, Ed. Maury – Imprimeur S.A., año XLI, Septiembre de 1988.

ANEXOS

TABLA DE DATOS PARA EL CÁLCULO DE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LAS RAMPAS (SIN TENER EN CUENTA EL TIPO)

Cálculo para N-codos de altura, de la longitud de la rampa, respecto al ángulo de la pendiente (3.9 grados), teniendo en cuenta que la altura total no contiene a A1 (0.45 metros):

Fórmula:

Longitud (D) = (Altura)/(cot(ángulo))

Cálculo para determinar la altura hasta la cual se puede utilizar la rampa:

Fórmula:

Altura (A) = ((230.4/2)-(longitud de la rampa/2))/(146.6/(230.4/2))

Tabla de resultados:

Medidas: Altura(H): Longitud(D): Altura en la pirámide:

1 codo 0,45 metros 6,6008 metros 82,6697 metros

2 codos 0,90 metros 13,2017 metros 80,2314 metros

3 codos 1,35 metros 19,8025 metros 77,7931 metros

4 codos 1,80 metros 26,4034 metros 75,3548 metros

5 codos 2,25 metros 33,0042 metros 72,9165 metros

6 codos 2,70 metros 39,6050 metros 70,4782 metros

7 codos 3,15 metros 46,2059 metros 68,0399 metros

8 codos 3,60 metros 52,8067 metros 65,6016 metros

9 codos 4,05 metros 59,4075 metros 63,1633 metros

10 codos 4,50 metros 66,0084 metros 60,7250 metros

11 codos 4,95 metros 72,6092 metros 58,2867 metros

12 codos 5,40 metros 79,2101 metros 55,8484 metros

Nota: El ancho de la rampa dependerá de las necesidades para transportar los objetos, partiendo de un ancho mínimo equivalente al doble del que posee el objeto a transportar.

CALCULOS DE LOS PARAMETROS DE LA RAMPA PATRON

Cálculos de la rampa

Parámetros:

Altura inicial de la rampa: A1: 0,4500 Metros

Altura final de la rampa: A2: 2,7000 Metros

Longitud de la rampa: B: 33,7500 Metros

Ancho de la rampa: L: 1,8000 Metros

Fórmula para hallar el ángulo de inclinación:

Ángulo(ƒ): (ƒ)= Arcot(B/(A2-A1)) = 1/Arctan(B/(A2-A1));

siendo: cot(ƒ) = (B/(A2-A1))

cot(ƒ)=1/tan(ƒ)= 15,0000

(ƒ)= 3,9054

A Country Within A Country: Travel To Barcelona

The distinctive regional culture of Barcelona is largely due to geography and a plentitude of national pride and elitism. Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia, one of Spain’s 17 semi-autonomous states. The regional language is Catalan, along with the national language of Castilian Spanish. There has long been pressure from the Catalonian government and nationalists to earn complete autonomy from Spain. Consequently, the exclusive culture can be difficult to adjust to and there is significant animosity towards foreigners around the main tourist street of Las Ramblas. To thoroughly enjoy the sweet life and gentle hospitality of Barcelona, leave this busy area and explore the many diverse districts, endless with possibility.

Café Life and Nightlife for the Night Owl

Barcelona is truly a city that never sleeps, particularly during the warm Mediterranean summers. Avoid standing out like a sore thumb by eating dinner when the locals do: after 10 p.m. It is common to see children, grandparents and the family dog gathering at the outdoor cafes at these hours when the day’s work is finished and time for friends and family has commenced. Since Barcelona hosted the Olympics in 1992, the city has been revamped with visitor friendly attractions such as the massive Olympic Village, a string of swanky restaurants, state-of-the-art nightclubs and boutiques along the beach. Most nightclubs do not get going until after 1 a.m. and club-goers typically wander out onto the beach around 5:30 to watch the sunrise over the Mediterranean.

A Modernista Mecca

The architectural wonders of Barcelona will keep even the most novice eye bewildered and intrigued. Antoni Gaudi decorated Barcelona with his treasures of modernism as a painter on a canvas. The grand boulevard of Passeig de Gracia is lined with elaborately adorned Casa Batllo and Casa Mila, both with the most intricate rooftops known to modern architecture. Arguably the most stunning of Gaudi’s work is the Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia. Each of the church’s facades are meticulously designed with different themes and styles combining nature with religion and the soaring towers topped with mosaic grapes are built around a conch-like coiled staircase that visitors may choose to take instead of the elevator. Another tribute to Barcelona’s artistic heritage is the Palau da la Musica Catalana. A view of the glass and mosaic inverted chandelier on the ceiling of the theater is alone worth the visit. Daily tours are offered in addition to the regularly held musical performances. Afterward, get lost in the tiny twisting passages of the surrounding historic Gothic Quarter.

Traveling Barcelona Right Not Your Weekend Visit

It is best to avoid traveling to Spain in August, when most of the locals (and most of Mediterranean Europe) take their vacations. Chances are that the restaurant you wanted to visit will be closed and museums will have extremely curtailed hours. August can also be uncomfortably hot.

Barcelona should be traveled with care and patience. The only disappointment visitors have is the inability to see all of the city’s landmarks and hidden corners in a realistic amount of time.

Romantic Getaways In Barcelona

But if you and your partner are looking for something a bit different, then there is no better city in the world than Barcelona to get your pulse racing again.

Romance is one thing. The place you stay is something else altogether. You cannot hope to have a romantic getaway without the proper accommodation. Wherever you go, you will be spending a good chunk of your time in your hotel, holiday apartment or resort. If the accommodation is not up to your expectations, then your romantic holiday will not get off on the right note.
It is not only staying in the right place that should make a difference. You have to stay in the right location to avoid having to travel too far to the romantic places you wish to visit while you are in Barcelona.

One place you should consider is Hotel Girona. The hotel is situated in proximity to the main city centre. Set in modernist architecture, the hotel has an understatement of romance and elegance. The interior has maintained an element of its originality and is a true reflection of Barcelona’s rich history. The outside terrace area is the most romantic and provides the perfect intimate setting for any couple looking for some quiet time.

If you are the type of person who is looking for something a little different, then Hotel Arts should provide you with just that. It is not your mainstream idea of romance, but rather provides the views that all seaside holidays should be made of. The hotel is slightly pricier than other Barcelona getaways, but its minimalist styling and panoramic views should make it all worthwhile. The hotel bar serves over 500 wines, so even the most discerning palate should find no reason to complain. Couples can spend romantic pampered days in the spa, followed by a sunset walk along the promenade.

If you prefer not to stay right in the city centre, then Hotel Relais d’Orsa should be perfect. The hotel is located a half hour from the city centre and is a true taste of Spanish elegance. The hotel is styled in original 18th century finishings. Situated on a hilltop, the views of Barcelona are breathtaking. The hotel combines old charm with all the modern amenities you could wish for. The surrounding area is as green as you will find anywhere in the world and is the perfect setting for a quiet, romantic getaway.

There are too many places to mention where to stay in romantic Barcelona. There is so much choice in the way of hotels, accommodation and holiday apartments that whatever your tastes, you will find the perfect romantic setting.